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Virgin Saint (Harvard Univ., Houghton Library, MS Typ 704 (6) recto)

This placement suggests that the calendrical sequence ends in December and supports the idea that it began with Advent season. However, this theory is complicated by the fact that Advent season itself would have encompassed the Saints of December such as Lucy and Thomas. Gottschalk’s solution to this complexity appears to have been to simply avoid mingling the Sanctorale with Advent. For example, 2016 New Fashion WoMens Casual High Top Sport Sneakers Athletic Running Increased Shoes Silver tMDFGrI
, liturgy for the week after the Fourth Sunday of Advent, provides ONLY Temporale liturgy and does not give any hint of Sanctorale feasts, even though that week could have included Saints from late December such as Lucy or Thomas. Instead, Gottschalk inserted the Saints of Advent season at the end of the manuscript, when the calendar circled back around to December. With only 29 leaves recovered out of perhaps as many as one hundred, however, it is certainly possible that additional evidence may result in adjustments to this sequence. Because Fragmentarium uses a drag-and-drop feature to sequence images, it will be quite simple to add or re-order leaves if necessary. The clip below demonstrates this backend functionality.

It is worth noting that images of the two leaves at Harvard were imported directly into the Fragmentarium reconstruction using a persistent IIIF url. The other images were uploaded to the Fragmentarium server as individual JPGs. That’s part of the magic of both Fragmentarium and of IIIF, the International Image Interoperability Framework .

Angel of the Annunciation (Harvard Univ., Houghton Library MS Typ 704 (5) verso)

IIIF is the key to fragmentology. If an institutional repository serves its images using IIIF, each individual imagefile will have a persistent IIIF url that can be used to mirror the image directly into a shared-canvas viewer such as Mirador or, in the case of Fragmentarium, Open Sea Dragon. This means that the images are truly open access and can be shared, imported, and manipulated without duplicating, downloading, or uploading the imagefile itself. When the Fragmentarium shared canvas is opened or refreshed, the IIIF images are “mirrored” into the canvas directly from the host server, freed from the host’s viewer or database. The image also has its own metadata established by the home institution that “travels” with it into the shared canvas. If you want to learn more about IIIF and the Mirador viewer, by the way, check out the three-day workshop at the Beinecke Library on 10-12 July 2018 that I will be co-teaching with Stanford University’s Ben Albritton. The deadline to apply is June 1, and more information is available.

When I first studied the Gottschalk Antiphonal in the early 1990s, I did it with scissors and paste and black-and-white photocopies on the floor of my living room. It is truly thrilling to see it in glorious IIIF-compliant interoperable color in Fragmentarium. I hope that the reconstruction will complement the liturgical, art historical, and musicological study in my book, bringing this beautiful example of twelfth-century music, liturgy, and decoration to a new generation of students and scholars.

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Climate change is the most urgent environmental and human health issue of our time. As the frontline stewards of patient and community health, hospitals have a unique opportunity to address climate change. In addition to making impactful and measurable progress in their own operations to address climate change, hospitals must work toward accelerating investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency, scaling the adoption of climate change mitigation and resiliency programs, and advocating for local, state, and national policies that ensure a sustainable and healthy future.

In an effort to build a unified voice among hospitals committed to addressing climate change, Health Care Without Harm established the Health Care Climate Council in 2014.

The Health Care Climate Council is a leadership body of health systems committed to protecting their patients and employees from the health impacts of climate change and becoming anchors for resilient communities. Health Care Climate Council members implement innovative climate solutions, inspire and support others to act, and use their trusted voice and purchasing power to move policy and markets to drive the transformation to climate-smart health care.

The Health Care Climate Council drives the transformation to climate-smart health care through a three-pillar strategy:

All Health Care Climate Council members are also members of Health Care Without Harm’s membership organization, Practice Greenhealth . Founded in 2008, Practice Greenhealth is the leading membership and networking organization for sustainable health care, delivering environmental solutions to more than 1,100 U.S. hospitals and health systems. This learning community sets and tracks environmental goals and shares best practices to accelerate the collective progress toward climate-smart health care.

Climate Action Playbook

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captures examples of the many ways Health Care Climate Council members are moving toward climate-smart health care. The playbook is intended to inspire hospitals to engage further in climate action, and provide a vivid path forward to achieving measurable progress and outcomes. BOC Womens Sharin Open Toe Casual Slingback Sandals Navy/Ocean Tooled UIQTg0IsN
related to the playbook.

For more information about the Health Care Climate Council, contact Jessica Wolff , U.S. director of Climate and Health for Health Care Without Harm and Practice Greenhealth.


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Posted by Jordan Taylor on March 13, 2015

Today we have a special Merrell Mens Agility Peak Flex Trail Runner Merrell/Orange FDcq7zCchU
post that covers several question types at once—showingyou how to author flourishing multi-step questions.

Craft a two, three, or four part question that’s thematic (covering multiple standards/learning objectives) or satisfy each detailed component of a given standard.

Introducing !

In a white paper entitled “ Technology Enhanced Items for Formative Assessments in Dialogic Curriculums ,” researchers state someof the most important benefits of the Multipart question:

*, , , , , and are all showing in this article.

Try Multipart today by joining Edulastic for free!

See Multipart in action!



Standards Learning Objectives Covered

Grade 7 » Expressions Equations

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Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

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Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4.B Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem.

What You Want Students To Do

Answer multipart—or multistep—questions built from different question type widgets (e.g. ; ; ; ; , , and ).

Pedagogical Value

In this example we’recrafting an assessment that addressesseveral standards (and features several question types).

An important strengthof is you cancraft an assessment that tests several different cognitive processes. For example, you can first ask students to provide an analysis of information and then provide evidence for their conclusions.


Used in both ELA and Math assessments. Be creative with the seven different questions types that function as widgets.

gives you a robust space to place all your text and question widgets within a scrollable area. Notice thatyou need to prepare your text—and then placethe widgets (answer boxes) in several locations such as: at the end of a question; within a sentence; or below a question.

Navigating this space is easy. Simply click outside of the widget, or answer areas, and hit enter so your cursor will appear below your finished question sets.

Grading = auto-scoring.

Below I’ll cover step-by-step how you can create a question to add to your technology-enhanced assessments. *Click each image for an enlarged view.

*Thequestion examples for each section arecovered below.

Creating a MultipartQuestion
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Leadership Organisations - BLOG
Phanish Puranam , INSEAD Professor of Strategy and Organisation Design, and Eucman Lee, Assistant Professor, Nanyang Technological University |

Today’s organisations are shaped more like Christmas trees than pyramids.

Can we design business hierarchies that work, but also ones that we like? The results of our recent reader survey suggest that the key is finding a way to flatten organisations without sacrificing effectiveness.

In our efforts to understand what we dislike about hierarchies, a few weeks ago we asked readers to take a short, anonymous survey about the shape of their organisation’s hierarchies. We are delighted to report that we received 246 responses from organisations in six different, major sectors, whose primary activities were located all around the world. The respondents themselves (based on their IP addresses) were located across multiple regions (see Figure 4) and were drawn from the upper ranks of their organisations. The organisations represented in the sample varied enormously in size and age. They also varied greatly in the number of layers in the hierarchy (from 1 to 33). By layers, we mean the number of bosses that stand between the most junior employee and the CEO. Figure 1 shows average layers for organisations in different size categories. We learned that the shape of hierarchies varies tremendously across organisations. But perhaps the much more surprising insight was about how it varies an institution.

Organisational hierarchies: Christmas trees, not pyramids

Most current implicit and explicit thinking about hierarchies within organisations assumes that the at any layer is constant. Our span of control is the number of direct subordinates that a boss has. We had strongly suspected that the assumption of a constant span is not correct, and the data strongly bears this out. Only 12 percent of respondents told us that the span in their organisations remained constant across layers (see Figure 2). The majority (39 percent) felt that there was no systematic pattern to the relationship between span and layers, and the rest were distributed into those who said span increased vs. those who said it decreased across layers within their organisations. This means that organisational hierarchies are, in truth, more like Christmas trees than pyramids, with the spans varying quite a bit at different layers of the hierarchy.

Why does this matter? The span of control of one’s superiors in a hierarchy is known to be strongly associated (positively) with the sense of autonomy an individual enjoys, and with the sense of proximity to the ultimate locus of power. The classics in organisation design (e.g. Urwick , Mintzberg ) have noted that larger spans necessarily imply less time spent supervising each subordinate, giving each employee a greater sense of freedom from interference from their superiors. (This will not necessarily lead to an effective outcome, but here we are focusing on perceptions of autonomy.) Larger spans also imply fewer layers, shortening the distance to the apex.

Large variations in the span of one’s superiors can therefore imply that individuals at different levels within the same hierarchy may report very different levels of satisfaction with their experience of the hierarchy. And this need not follow any systematic pattern as we move up and down the layers of a hierarchy. Satisfaction with the hierarchy is probably uncorrelated with levels, except at the very top and the very bottom.

How to delayer?

We also asked survey respondents what change they would make to their hierarchy’s shape, keeping the size the same. 29.2 percent said they would decrease layers and 21.5 percent said they would increase span. These are perfectly equivalent, of course: For a given number of employees, the only way to decrease layers in the hierarchy is to increase span, or vice versa . A third said they would do neither. In response to open-ended questions, 12 percent also emphasised delayering, while another 16 percent and 12 percent asked for more delegation and peer-to-peer interactions, respectively. The overall message seems clear: The inhabitants of hierarchies would like them to be flatter, with smaller power differences between the apex and lower layers.

As far as we know today, there are only two ways to delayer an organisation: Either shrink organisations, so that with a given span, the hierarchy will have fewer layers as the number of members in the organisation contracts; or keep the same number of members but increase spans of control.

So how can we increase spans of control without sacrificing effectiveness? Alternately, can we diminish power distances and enhance autonomy without changing layers (or sacrificing effectiveness)? This will be the topic of our last post in this series, which will be published soon.

Figure 1.

a. Average number of layers by organization size

Figure 2. Q:

Figure 3.

Figure 4. Regional distribution of respondents

Phanish Puranam

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